Whenever a common person hears the name cancer, he terrifies because the name itself is ferocious. The life becomes a witched curve. Many people are still new to the term.
Well, when we talk about cancer it is nothing but abnormal growth of the cell tissues. In general terms, it is a large group of disease that has different characteristics, causes and occurrence. When we consider the perfect definition of Cancer, it is not definite.
As we discussed that Cancer is a disease that gives rise to abnormal growth of cells and Cancer widely categorizes as breast cancer, lung, spinal cord, vocal, intestinal and several others. Of all the type of cancers, blood cancer is one of the life taking cancers of all. One must be thinking how the cancer starts and what are the signs that can let you know if its cancer. Let us explore.
How cancer initiates, grows and spreads?
Human bodies are made by constituting trillions of cells and tissues. Cell has genes inside the nucleus which grow, work divide and ultimately die.
Under cancer circumstances, DNA changes and it start getting damaged. Genes become mutated and they don’t work properly. These enable cells to abnormally divide and grow which can result into cancer.
How does cancer start?
When the genes function properly, the cells grow and divide too. When the cells divide and they further get divided into multiples. This is the function of normal cells whereas cancer cells are different. These cells generally have gene mutations that develop with time and get older.
Cancer cells don’t act normal and start to grow and their division is uncontrollable. Gene mutations in the cells interrupt with the normal growth of the same and cancer cells act differently than the normal ones. These are different due to the following reasons:
- Division out of control
- Immature and don’t develop into matured cells
- Avoid immune system
- Cancer cells ignore signals that tell them to stop the division process
- Grow and damage tissues and the organs too
- They don’t stick together very well and can spread to other body parts via blood and lymphatic system
As cancer cells get divided, a tumour develops and it starts growing. Cancer cells need blood supply to bring in the oxygen and nutrients to grow and retain. When a tumour is tiny, it starts to grow abnormally. The tumour gets oxygen and nutrients from nearby blood vessels.
But as the tumour starts growing, it needs more blood to bring in the oxygen as well as nutrients to the cancer cells. This process is famously known as angiogenesis and it is one of the main reasons that tumour grow and get bigger. This allows cancer cells to enter the blood and spread easily to other parts of the body.
How Does Cancer Spread?
As the tumour starts to grow, cancer cells spread to surround the tissues and structures by pushing on normal tissues besides the tumour. The cancer cells also make the enzymes that break down normal cells and tissues as they grow. Cancer that grows into nearby tissue is the prominent as invasive cancer or local invasion.
Additionally, Cancer can also spread from where it initiated to the other body parts. This process is known as Metastasis. When the cancer cells break away from the tumour and start entering new locations, Tumour can become danger.
What Cause Cancer?
Cancer is caused by accumulated damage in the genes. Such changes occur due to the exposure to a cancer causing substance. The substances responsible for generating cancer are known as Carcinogens and these are chemical substances that are present in the smoke or tobacco.
Further, the cause of Cancer can be different such as genetic factors, environmental agents. Moreover, we should bear in the mind that in the majority cases, Cancer can be the cause of several factors:
- Biological or internal factors such as age, gender, inherited genetic faults and defects.
- Environmental exposure and exposure to UV radiations
- Occupational factors such as carcinogens, radioactive materials and asbestos.
- Lifestyle related factors such as Tobacco, Alcohol, UV Radiation in sunlight, food habits etc.
Symptoms of Cancer:
Signs and symptoms caused by Cancer may vary depending on what body part it is affected.
- Lump or area of thickening under the skin
- Weight changes
- Changes in bowel or bladder
- Difficulty in swallowing
- Excess bleeding or bruising
- Persistent indigestion or discomfort after eating
These are the common reasons responsible for causing Cancer and one must make sure to visit doctor at the earliest.
When to see a doctor?
Make an appointment with the doctor if one has any persistent signs or symptoms that hassles you. Further, if you need a regular check up related to cancer, under such circumstances one can reach doctor for precautions.
There are several risk factors involved that can convey you that you have Cancer.
While doctors have a basic idea of what may increase the risk of Cancer, majority of Cancers occur who don’t know the risk factors. These factors include:
- Age: Though there is no specific age when Cancer doesn’t hit, however, majority of people with the age 60 or above encounters Cancer due to unknown reasons.
- Habits: Certain pattern of lifestyle may increase the risk of Cancer. These habits include smoking, drinking, excessive exposure to sunlight, obesity or unsafe sex.
- Genetical Problems: If any person in your family is suffering from the Cancer, this can cause you too. Here, genes play a major role.
- Health Conditions: Some chronic health issues such as ulcerative colitis also known as Ulcers can increase the risk of developing Cancers. One should concern doctor.
- Environment: Environment around you can also increase the risk of Cancer as it may have harmful chemicals and viruses that can lead to certain complications.
Cancer is a dangerous disease and one can avoid the same completely by eating healthy foods, avoiding excessive sun exposure, maintaining a healthy weight, avoiding Alcohol, exercise most days of the week and more. It is not so difficult to fight or avoid Cancer, but taking well prescribed instructions from the doctor can significantly help you to be on a safer side.